The effects of extrafamilial factors on the cognitive skills of children

If resources permit, dataset designers should also consider oversampling Asian-Americans as well as Hispanic subgroups such as Puerto Ricans.

role of family in child development essay

Low income has been related to less adequate prenatal care Kalmuss and Fenelly,low birthweight and higher infant mortality U. Family-process measures in this survey include measures of parental aspirations and attitudes regarding secondary for their child and financial planning for college.

The use of illicit drugs and abuse of alcohol exact a steep price from our society.

The effects of extrafamilial factors on the cognitive skills of children

Of particular interest is the finding that the IQs of ever-poor children are affected by the persistence of their poverty. High-Quality, Longitudinal Measurement of Family Resources Most theories of child and adolescent development view as important the overall level of family economic resources. Regardless notably, technologies most on or career with how individuals need in interpersonal relationships, behave within universities, and project feelings and meanings of displays of academics and love. In others, more expensive changes could open up invaluable analytic opportunities. Another issue complicates understanding of Hispanic-American children and families. In , the survey involved some 7, households. Characteristics or conditions that counteract the risk to which children are exposed, delayed, suppress, or neutralize negative outcomes Individual Protective Factors Temperament, cognitive ability, social skills, interpersonal awareness, effective problem solving skills, internal locus of control, high self esteem, positive orientation. In addition, there are many measures of the quality of the spousal relationship, including interspousal conflict, conflict resolution styles, violence, global marriage quality, and sharing of household duties. The complicity of substance abuse in serious social ills such as. Subgroups of adolescents exhibit clusters of risk-taking behaviors, and certain risk-taking behaviors show a somewhat orderly progression of acquisition cigarette use in the elementary school being predictive of alcohol and marijuana use in the middle school being predictive of the use of other drugs in high school years; Yamaguchi and Kandel, We begin with examples of measures of developmental outcomes, resources, and family processes identified by theory as important. For families at the low end of the income spectrum, however, the loss of time due to working is probably not offset by high-quality child care, in that child care choices are constrained by income if relatives are not available Hofferth and Phillips,

Questionnaires were also filled out by parents of approximately 10 percent of the students. Information concerning a household's material resources is very detailed, although the data refer primarily to the status of the household and its members at the time of the survey only.

Interviews will take place every other year after The survey has been taken every two years from to Family-process data are one of the great strengths of this survey owing to the breadth and the depth of information gathered.

social factors affecting child development

This is not sufficient for many important purposes, since it often does not allow the researcher to distinguish important relationships among members of subfamilies. Data on family material resources are sparse, limited to total family income and assets parental report.

Community impact on child development

Moreover, resource models do not take into account individual differences in children. These results click that genetic influences on written development occur through a transactional process, in which organizational predispositions lead children to evoke cognitively distinguishing experiences from their applications. An important but neglected challenge in using longitudinal data is to gauge the impact of attrition on estimates of developmental models. These transitions include the transition from preschool to elementary school, the transition to middle or junior high school, the transition to high school, and the transition out of high school into the work force, higher education, vocational training, or unemployment. Current plans are to continue the survey at least for the foreseeable future. Bureau of the Census, , and only about one-half of children who are poor in a given year are poor over longer periods Duncan and Rodgers, This is true even though representative samples include minorities. If both parents work, or if a single parent works, time is severely constrained. Resources actually spent on promoting child and adolescent development are considered "investments" since, independent of whether they add to a child's well-being immediately, time and money are expended with the intent of enhancing the future health, cognitive ability, and productive social behavior of children. Many studies have attempted to use this variation to infer what would happen to work effort or family structure if the overall level of benefits from programs such as AFDC were to be changed Moffitt, National household surveys should append neighborhood-based data to their data files. Questionnaires were filled out by students, school administrators, and up four of the students' teachers.
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What Child Issues Can Affect Cognitive Development?