The problem is that two of these languages are very similar to Nabataean in a number of ways. Many of these remains are poorly preserved and others such as stem and root elements cannot be precisely identified. These inscriptions are now being cataloged and much is being learned from examining them.
Biennial rotation usually fallow-cereal but also legume-cereal is the most commonly used practice in the semi-arid regions. Finally, fig production is known at Dharih and Ez Zantur during the Nabataean period and pomegranates at Hegra during the Classical Nabataean. Condiments 19Finally, coriander Coriandrum sativum is the only condiment plant, potentially cultivated, found and it is represented by two fruit remains in the Nabataeo-roman levels at Bosra Figure 3.
However, it is useful to balance an interpretation that is based only on archaeological structure to account for the existence or not of crop irrigation practices. The hypothesis retained detailed in Bouchaud,p.
Like modern examples, showing for example cereal crops in wadi beds Palmer, or the temporary and manual creation of adduction canals dug in the ground, farmers working at these sites certainly had recourse to such ephemeral and barely discernible practices.
The analysis Figure 4 shows a high contribution on the two first axes No site near to and contemporaneous with Hegra has been the subject of a published archaeobotanical study In the absence of direct markers in the archaeobiological data used, we consider the probably concomitant existence of rainfed crops and minor irrigation practices in Bosra, Dharih and Petra, with maybe more important ones for crops requiring regular watering, as grapevine.
Such practices of uprooting may in part explain the small number of reaping tools found for these periods see for example Crawford, Table 5: Qualitative results for carpological studies at sites in the study region.
The absence of grapevine charcoal at Ez Zantur may be due to low sampling or lack of use of this wood as fuel.