Issues and challenges of slum upgrading
Over time, the area will upgrade incrementally. There must also be a clear legal framework behind land rights. Harvest plots are a tool developed to synthesize evidence from complex and heterogeneous population-level interventions.
The first pertained to the manner of presentation of information from the main and supporting studies combined or separately given important study design differences.
Problems and effects of slums
While both men and women living in slums face hardships, women—especially widows—are particularly vulnerable. Most also do not have easy access to schools, hospitals or public places for the community to gather. We also highlight issues and challenges faced in the analysis and presentation of results. In addition to the poor who are simply looking for a decent place to live, there can be criminal elements who take advantage of the informal space, or landlords who make small fortunes renting out shacks to people over time. The logic model, reproduced here from the review 1 aided in conceptualizing the focus of the review and guided the literature search, identified groupings of multi-component interventions, upstream and proximal interventions and highlighted outcomes of interest. If slums are allowed to deteriorate, governments can lose control of the populace and slums become areas of crime and disease that impact the whole city. Often, access to education and health care are also part of upgrading. As a result, slum upgrading generally affects women and men differently. It involves providing slum dwellers with the economic, social, institutional and community services available to other citizens.
The two most important ones are strong political will on behalf of government and strong buy-in on the part of communities. The main issues are political will from the authorities, land tenure, financing and institutional arrangements, including how stakeholders, particularly the marginalized and vulnerable, can participate in decision-making processes.
Similar approaches to including supporting studies have been used in a review of specialist outreach clinics in primary care and rural hospital settings published in the Cochrane Library.
The poor can and are willing to pay for improved services and homes. The skills they have used to run households can be applied on a community-wide scale to run a savings scheme, for example, or manage a community construction project.
Slum upgrading projects
This group provided inputs in the design and parameters of the protocol. Given the paucity of qualitative information and disparate themes, rigorous thematic analyses were not possible. Back to top How long does it take for a slum to be upgraded? The two most important ones are strong political will on behalf of government and strong buy-in on the part of communities. Though low-income settlements usually lack public facilities, it has been recognized that strong social networks play an immensely important role in alleviating this deficit as well as in creating employment opportunities. Pollution solutions[ edit ] In cities such as Mexico City , Mexico , the local government has installed a cars driving program which prohibits the driving of certain car colours on certain days. These included multidisciplinary bibliographic databases as well as relevant specialist databases, covering health, social science, urban planning, environment and LMIC databases. Like all informal settlements, housing in slums is built on land that the occupant does not have a legal claim to and without any urban planning or adherence to zoning regulations. If the upgrading process is not favourable, the often suffer more. This program planned to incorporate educational programs that would teach residents how to improve their health, education, and economic status. Thus, for many of the projects, the one-time cost is not enough: slum upgrading projects are long-term commitments unless they are made with the ability to recover costs through revenue. This will decrease pressure on those settlements which are already in existence, making the upgrading process easier to manage. This approach is rarely effective. Most slum evictions occur when local authorities want to remove slums located on prime real estate and turn the land over to developers or other vested interests.
One is to recognise that urbanisation is going to happen. A logic model provided an exceptionally useful contribution, graphically identifying the key elements and relationships within the system 5 Fig.
Solutions to slum problems pdf
Conclusion The systematic review on slum upgrading interventions highlights several methodological challenges. Over time, these incremental improvements by residents can upgrade the entire community. This has reduced the pollution levels in Mexico City drastically and has greatly increased the quality of life and safety of the air for all inhabitants, even though it is still at a level, which scientists say, is equivalent to smoking 60 cigarettes per day because of the still vast number of cars and unregulated industry , releasing masses of pollutants into the Mexico city air. Urban migration happens for a number of reasons: The pushing and pulling forces of migration. Once governments accept the reality of urban growth, the next step is to plan for it and determine where the new residents will live. In settlements with a majority of tenants, other systems of tenure security must be found that benefit the most vulnerable instead of commercial slumlords. Given the paucity of qualitative information and disparate themes, rigorous thematic analyses were not possible. UN-HABITAT defines a slum household as a group of individuals living under the same roof in an urban area who lack one or more of the following: Durable housing of a permanent nature that protects against extreme climate conditions. Generally, though, slums are built on land that is well-located and provides easy access to the city and its opportunities. Generally, urban upgrading is about striking a balance between investing in areas that attract investment to the city on a global level and in programmes that invest in the citizens of the city so they can reap the benefits as well. The primary challenges in slum upgrading are achieving some kind of coherence in the community and finding solutions to a wide range of needs. Ensuring successful slum upgrading requires constant attention to the budgets of the affected communities and the charges and prices associated with the project. In most societies, women and men tend to have different roles, responsibilities, needs and perceptions. Residents of a city have a fundamental right to environmental health and basic living conditions. While these designs were considered inadequate for assessing causation, they yielded nine supporting studies that indicated associations between interventions and outcomes.
The process of realising the rights of slum dwellers hinges on their capacity to engage actively with the government. The review is concerned with slum upgrading strategies involving physical environment and infrastructure interventions and their effects on health and socio-economic outcomes.
based on 54 review